Monday, December 30, 2019
Counselor Ethics and Responsibilities Jennifer P Coetzee PCN-505 May 18, 2016 Kendra Stewart Counselor Ethics and Responsibilities Section 1: Counselor Values There are so many different views in opinions when it comes to the topic of abortion. There is the religious point that it is wrong to have an abortion because of the ten commandment that states Ã¢â¬Å"Thou shall not kill.Ã¢â¬ All have heard this one whether atheist or religious. PeopleÃ¢â¬â¢s right to choose abortion or not has been questioned for many years, as congress officials have tried on many occasions to illegalize this right. Then there is the other side of this opinion where so many feel it is the womanÃ¢â¬â¢s right to choose to have an abortion. A lot of people see this as aÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦I always felt that was punishment for the abortion. I would want someone thinking of making this decision all that I went through and other women as well, however in a situation like this where the women became pregnant from a rape, I do not know that I could disagree with her, unless I could talk to her about adoption, but I feel she may relive the rape in her min d every day that she is pregnant. This is a decision that only the woman can make, only she knows herself enough to make the right decision for her. Assisted suicide is something that is discussed a lot and also has many different views. In my opinion I do not think suicide is the answer in any situation. As a person who has suffered a loved one committing suicide this is something that is so hard on the family. I would probably suggest that this person go on hospice and allow death to occur naturally. I would explain to her that hospice will medicate her where she does not feel any of the pain. If she were to go that route it would give her time to be with her family and tell them things she wants to tell them. In the event this is not an option for her, I would have to support her decision in this choice. Ã¢â¬Å"Assisted dying describes (1) voluntary euthanasia, in which Ã¢â¬Ëa doctor intentionally kills a person by the administration of drugsÃ¢â¬â¢, and (2) physician-assisted suicide (PAS), whereby Ã¢â¬Ëa doctor helps a person to commit suicide by
Sunday, December 22, 2019
Martin Luther and Phillip Melanchthons Contributions in Educational Reform in the Protestant Reformation The life of Martin Luther is frequently studied and his ideas are widely known. Accounts of the nailing of his Ninety-Five theses on the door of the Castle Church in Wittenberg and his condemnation at the Diet of Worms are considered by many in the western world to be common knowledge. What is less frequently explored; however, are his vast achievements outside of his direct conflict with the Catholic Church. A major example of this is Luthers achievement in educational reform. Although at first Luther resisted new forms of education, he came to view schools as powerful tools for getting hisÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦Luther also took notice of Melanchthon, specifically of his inaugural address at the university, which he entitled, Discourse on Reforming the Studies of Youth. Because of the mutual respect and admiration given towards one another the two became collaborators in the Protestant Reformation. Melanchthon gave strength to the Reformation in his argumentative yet rational works, like Loci Communes Rerum Theologicarum(Commonplaces of Theology, 1521). When Luther was confined to the Castle of Wartburg following the Diet of Worms, Melanchthon took over as the leader of the Reformation at the University of Wittenberg, becoming the professor of theology there and standardizing the constitutions of the reformed German churches. Melanchthon then, as the leading representative of the Reformation at the Diet of Augsburg in 1530, presented the Augsburg Confession, consisting of 21 articles of faith that he had drawn up with Luthers advice. While Melanchthon was deeply influenced by Luthers ideas on religious reform, it was he who helped to shape Luthers stance on educational reform. At first, Luthers ideas and those of the education, specifically humanist education, seemed to clash. Luthers passionate teachings about faith and religion seemed to be an immediate threat to humanist schools that were more worldly and oriented towards reason and practical learning. He
Saturday, December 14, 2019
Assignment: The importance of the concept of cash-flow for the business finance Definition: Cash flow is the movement of money into or out of a business, an account or an investment. Normally, when the cash inflow is greater than the cash outflow it is a sign of a good financial situation because cash flow is essential for the survival of a business or even to any individual financial condition. If the company can meet its obligations and keep a healthy inflow of cash it has a healthy situation and the management of the company can invest most of its time in developing the company. We will write a custom essay sample on The Importance of the Concept of Cash Flow or any similar topic only for you Order Now There are 3 types of cash-flows: Operating cash-flows, which is the money received or spent as a result of a companyÃ¢â¬â¢s normal business activities. Investment cash-flows, which is the money received or spent through investing activities and thirdly the financing cash-flows, which is the cash received through debt or paid out as debt repayments. Example: Imagine that you run a shoe factory. Having cash is necessary for your business to flow. If you have cash you can pay your suppliers, your employees and yourself on time and so keep the business flow. Therefore if you, as an individual, receive your pay check, you can pay for all your expenses (e. g. housing, food, utilities, insurance, etc). Here we are speaking about operational cash-flow. Another way of creating cash is if you opt for purchasing and selling assets. This is normally a long term issue that can help your business grow and might lead to a net worth increase. This is called investment cash-flow. There are companies that are specialized in this area that manage funds that invest and divest in property. Finally, a third option you have is financing cash-flows. This includes any cash which comes from loans or other types of other debt that allow you to finance your cash flow. It is also used to finance the down payments made of debts. Conclusion: Based on the above, one understands the importance of managing carefully the cash-flow and also having capacity to meet emergency situations in order to be protected from unexpected circumstances, be it in a business or personally. To be able to run a company in a healthy way it is important to have a good and open relationship with your banks and secure lines of credit for certain times of the year when there is a delay in the cash inflows and also when there is a specific opportunity that requires cash. Companies that manage their cash flow in a positive way have a much stronger possibility of being successful. An example of an unexpected situation, and for which many are not normally prepared, is the sudden downturn in an economy just like what has happened in Portugal in the past three years. The factors which have had the biggest impact in the financial viability of companies are the inflation rate and above all, the restrictions on access to cash (e. g. : loans). If a business is not able to manage its cash-flow carefully and is not capable of setting aside emergency reserves (access to loans), then in a situation like today it will not be able to finance its cash flows and might enter into default. In some cases more than the economic capacity of a company it is its financial situation that might lead to a bankruptcy. We can then say that having cash is crucial for an entity to survive because companies with ample cash on hand can invest the cash back into the business and so generate more cash and profit. An old saying: Ã¢â¬Å"When the going gets tough, Cash is King! Ã¢â¬ Bibliography: Marques, Manuel de Oliveira, Ã¢â¬Å"A Importancia do Correcto Entendimento do Conceito de Cashflow para a Analise e a Tomada de Decisoes FinanceirasÃ¢â¬ , Estudos de Economia, vol. IV, n. 4, Jul-Sept 1984. Monica Alvares Ribeiro N? : 120499032 How to cite The Importance of the Concept of Cash Flow, Papers
Friday, December 6, 2019
Consciousness, as the book stated, really can be a funny thing. As I delved into Chapter 3, my consciousness immediately began to drift away. I was telling myself in my head how Ã¢â¬Å"I have to try to read as much of this chapter tonight, so I could focus on the writing the next dayÃ¢â¬ . Funny thing is I didnÃ¢â¬â¢t actually notice what was happening until I read Ã¢â¬Å"And then there are those times when consciousness seems to split. Reading Green Eggs and Ham to my preschooler for the umpteenth time, my obliging mouth could say the words while my mind wandered elsewhere. Ã¢â¬ However, I also had to reread a chunk of the text because even though my eyes were reading, my mind didnÃ¢â¬â¢t quite grasp any of what IÃ¢â¬â¢d just read while I was pondering about the reading and writing assignment. At first, I couldnÃ¢â¬â¢t quite comprehend what the book was talking about when it mentioned The Two-Track Mind or spoke of Dual Processing. We will write a custom essay sample on Consciousness or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page But suddenly I saw it from a different perspective and it just clicked. Computers have different kinds of processors; dual-core processors boost the systemÃ¢â¬â¢s multitasking computing powers. So the same must be true for dual processing, allowing us to do more things at once. However, dual-core processing computers are able to efficiently handle intensive tasks, where we are limited; according to this passage on The Two-Track Mind Ã¢â¬Å"Serial conscious processing, though slower than parallel processing, is skilled at solving new problems, which require our focused attentionÃ¢â¬ ¦ Tap a steady beat three times with your left hand while tapping four times with your right hand. Both tasks require attention, which can be in only one place at a time. Ã¢â¬ This is true, for I have noticed that IÃ¢â¬â¢m unable to perform at my usual skill level on video games when trying to holdÃ a conversation. The conversation, just as much as the video game requires my attention, so I must sacrifice my attention on one in order to do the other. Likewise, the reason I wasnÃ¢â¬â¢t able to comprehend what I read earlier, while my consciousness drifted, was because of something called Selective Attention. IÃ¢â¬â¢ve always been disturbed with the fact that most of us will spend a third of our entire lives sleeping. IÃ¢â¬â¢d always thought of sleep as a waste of time, but something that the body needed in order to function properly. But now IÃ¢â¬â¢m intrigued with the mystery that lies in that 3rd of our lives. Ã¢â¬Å"Thirty-seven percent of people report rarely or never having dreams that they can remember the next morningÃ¢â¬ (Moore, 2004). Unknown to those people, they spend about 600 hours a year experiencing some 1500 dreams, or more than 100,000 dreams over a typical lifetimeÃ¢â¬âdreams swallowed by the night but never acted out, thanks to REMÃ¢â¬â¢s protective paralysis. Ã¢â¬Å"While sleeping, you may feel dead to the world, but you are not. Even when you are deeply asleep, your perceptual window is not completely shut. Ã¢â¬ This is very true, IÃ¢â¬â¢ve noticed there are certain things, mainly sounds, that even when asleep, I tend to respond to. Such as hearing my name, as the book states, but even sounds like the meow of my cat. But, itÃ¢â¬â¢s also mentioned how Ã¢â¬Å"The occasional roar of passing vehicles may leave your deep sleep undisturbed. Ã¢â¬ Which makes me wonder why some sounds and not others, is it dependent on something simple such as the volume or pitch of the sound, or perhaps something more complicated and deeper such as how they are related to us, past experiences, or their importance in our lives?
Friday, November 29, 2019
The Metamorphosis As A Social Criticism Essay, Research Paper Society frequently works against itself in one manner or another. In reading Metamorphosis by Franz Kafka one could assume the work to be a societal unfavorable judgment. Throughout this narrative Kafka shows how society can be split into into different subdivisions, with Gregor stand foring the working adult male at the clip, and his household stand foring all the other sorts of people throughout society. This narrative shows how Gregor has worked for his household in the yesteryear, and how he subconsciously thought he had control over them. He works at an unbearable occupation of difficult work to back up his household, and gets small regard for this. It shows what happens to him when he stops working for them, he transforms into a immense cockroach. He is rejected by his household, and he is non cared for decently which consequences in his decease. We will write a custom essay sample on The Metamorphosis As A Social Criticism Essay or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page Following Gregors decease is a elated stoping, which finally implies that the rhythm will be repeated, though this clip through his sister. It is evident even in the first sentence? As Gregor awoke one forenoon from uneasy dreams, he found himself transformed into a mammoth insect? ( P862, Ph1 ) that Kafka meant something underneath the surface. Awakening from uneasy dreams could intend rousing from an uneasy, laboured life by discontinuing it all. His transmutation could intend how society can compare him to a cockroach for his giving up on them and handle him as if he was less than homo. Gregor has evidently had a life of difficult labour at a occupation that he finds to be intolerable ; as he states? Oh, God what an wash uping occupation I? ve picked? ( P862 Ph4 ) . He feels that he must work though. He feels that his household is incapable of back uping themselves. His female parent has asthma, his male parent is old, and his sister is really immature. As it turns out though, in the terminal, his household was absolutely capable of back uping themselves ; In fact his male parent had been salvaging up money the full clip. In reading this first part of the narrative one would be led to believe that Kafka is doing a statement of how the working adult male feels that his life, and others would be in hazard if he were to halt working. Possibly Kafka is stand foring Gregors household as the lower category. Once Gregor gives up working for his household he finds himself transformed into a large ugly cockroach, the lowest signifier of life. It? s clear why gregor gave up working for his household when he turns the key to the door and says? They should hold called out? maintain traveling, turn that key! ? ? ( P868 Ph3 ) what he needed were words of encouragement, words he neer received. This could credibly be a metaphor that the working people in society are manner overworked, and acquire really small regard for it. It is obvious that Gregor appears gross outing to others that see him when the head clerk runs off at first glance of him. This is his penalty for non working. His grotesque figure represents what he thinks people think of him. In a manner this is stating, When the working adult male, stops working he believes people will really him as a disgusting figure one that can make nil but unrecorded off of other s. At this point Gregor? s place, and regard in the family lessening quickly to a point of close nonentity. He can? t even talk to people, this is established earlier on in the narrative when The head clerk says? that was no human voice? ( P867 Ph4 ) . His household locks him in his room, and feeds him old decomposing nutrient. They wholly desert him, and seek to travel on with their lives. Gregor at this point experiences feelings of lost empathy, and longs to pass on with others. This could stand for the working adult males fear of poorness, it has been established that when the working adult male quits he becomes a disgustful animal in his and everyone? s eyes ; now that? s non the chief fright in the working adult male, it? s loss of being cared for, and loss of communicating in being hapless, dependent, and powerless. His non being able to talk represents the lower category adult male? s being silenced. How his household gives up on him, and deserts him is how society gives up on the hapless, or the homeless. Throughout Gregors life as a cockroach, he finds himself to be treated more like an carnal each twenty-four hours, like being served? a piece of cheese that he would hold called inedible? ( P873 Ph1 ) . He even finds himself to be moving like an animate being, ? he rapidly devours the cheese? ( P873 Ph1 ) . He appears to hold given up on life. He is non cared for decently, and finally withers off, and dies. This shows how society doesn? T truly care about the working adult male. In fact, it shows how society couldn? t attention less if he died, in fact it would lighten up up their twenty-four hours. Even his ain female parent says? ? now thanks be to god? ? ( P890 Ph2 ) upon first find of the organic structure. In the terminal though, after Gregors decease the temper all of a sudden alterations from somberness to glorification, a surprising turn of what one would think. The temper is peaceable, they household goes out on a amble. Everyone appears to be in a good temper. The dual turn is when Gregors father looks at Grete, and idea of the sort of adult male she could get married. This is really a amusing stoping because it shows merely how atrocious Gregors household truly is. All they can believe of is who will make full Gregors places as a attention taker for them. This is symbolic of what society thinks of the mean on the job adult male. They usage you, abuse you, throw you off, and so inquire for seconds ; ? It was like a verification of their new dreams, and excellent purposes that at the terminal of their long journey their girl sprang to her pess and stretched her immature organic structure? ( P892 Ph1 ) . I believe that the overall moral to the narrative is how society should give much more recognition to people who keep the universe running, and that life should non be all about work, silence, and penalty. I besides think it is about society? s moralities, and how they have reduced to such a ugly degree, I think Kafka calls change. It should now be clear that Kafka shows how society can be split into into different subdivisions, with Gregor stand foring the working adult male at the clip, and his household stand foring all the other sorts of people throughout society. Society frequently works against itself in one manner or another.
Monday, November 25, 2019
Pick a Business Essays Pick a Business Essay Pick a Business Essay Name: Course: Lecturer: Date: Pick a Business Part One Goodrich Petroleum Company is located or has its headquarters in Louisiana, Houston Texas. It was founded in 1970 by Goodrich Senior. It is among the best companies in America able to fight the financial crisis in America. The main reason for choosing this company is due to its renowned nature in the petroleum industry and since it has lived up to its expectation. Additionally, it deals not only with petroleum products but also with aerospace systems products. More so, it is a public listed company in the New York stock exchange under the symbol GDP. This alone proves the company is performing well. Lastly, I picked this company because it was easy to acquire information from the management unlike other companies who were not ready to offer me with information. The company has a user-friendly website where one can easily access the information about Goodrich Petroleum Company. The pictures in the website are also quite friendly contrary to what a person would expect from the company. It includes pictures of people drilling oil and a picture of a firm where drilling is going on. The website has information regarding the company that is extremely helpful to the different potential and existing investors of the company. The website has the latest news update of the upcoming events and other updates that might be of help to the people who might seek affiliation with the company (Goodrich Petroleum Corporation 2011). The company provides mainly petroleum products to the market. It mainly deals with the drilling of oil, acquisition, development, and production of natural gases and crude oil primarily in Louisiana, Houston, East and North Texas (Goodrich Petroleum Corporation 2011). The company deals with oil and gaseous products as its main products. According to the American oil market, it is affected by the financial crisis but Goodrich Petroleum Company has been able to survive the predicaments and excel in the extraction of the different oil a gas wells. It controls most of the oil and gas wells in more than seven states in America only. Goodrich Petroleum Company makes money by supplying their oil and other gases to their customers. Their customers are mainly companies dealing in oil products. What they actually do is they drill oil and natural gases in different potential wells. Once they have seen the oil or the gases they refine them to pure products which are then supplied to their customers for use. The company also has bought other oil and gas wells from other companies that help them in increasing their output so that they can be able to serve their range of customers in the market. Goodrich Petroleum Company is an independent corporation company that is publicly owned. It has its shares listed in the New York Stock Exchange Market with the symbol GDP. The company has more than twenty five thousand six hundred permanent employees. This is estimated to be a 6.7% growth of the employees in the company. This shows it has a wide range of employees who are both in the field ad in the office. The directorsÃ¢â¬â¢ remuneration or total compensation ranges from $320,000 to $370,000 per year (CNN 2011). This is more than most of the directors in other small companies in the industry. The company is estimated to be attracting revenue of more than $6,966.9m in the year of 2010 alone and a net income of $578.7m. This is an increase in the general growth of the company. Part Two The name of the director of the company is Mr. Goodrich who is the Vice president of the Board of governors. He is the son of the founder of the company. He joined the company immediately after the exit of his father from the industry. He has over fifty years of experience in the oil and gases exploration field. The company has more than twenty six thousand employees and revenue of more than six billion in a year. The company has growth in the employment opportunities in future. The employees in the company have an opportunity to grow both career wise and their salary packages (Forbes.com 2011). According to Mr. Goodrich, the company strengths are one the oil wells the company has. This is because the wells are located in areas where they are rich in oil and gases. A hundred percent of the wells are successful. Therefore, the company is not likely going to luck products. The second strength is the dedicated employees of the company. The company has dedicated employees ready to work to their best. Lastly, the company has a pool of experienced management who are ready to take up the company to the next level. The company has several weaknesses that can pull it down. According to Mr. Goodrich the decision making process of the company is very slow. The company finds it difficult to make timely decisions. The second one is the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s is inflexibility. This means they are not able to accept changes quickly. The last one is that the company is very slow to embrace technology in the field of drilling. The Company is very reluctant in allowing new technology to be used in the wells. According to Mr. Goodrich, the company has opportunities. The first opportunity is expansion. The company has the capacity and capability to expand to other parts of the country and become a global company. The second opportunity is the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s ability to increase its employment range and packages for its employees. This means that the employees have the opportunity to grow while working with Goodrich. Lastly, the company has the opportunity to increase their product from oil and gases to spare parts of different automobile machines. On the other hand, Mr. Goodrich notes there are certain threats to the company stability. The first threat is the existing financial crisis in the country. He is quick to say what is seen is not always the true picture because even they have been affected greatly. The second threats to the company are the different competitors of the company. If they are not quick enough they might loose the competitive advantage they have over the other companies. Lastly, company is being threatened by the current changing trends in business and technology. If they fail to change and lag behind, they might never catch up. Goodrich Petroleum Corporation. Goodrich Petroleum Corporation. Goodrich Petroleum Corporation. November 16, 2011. Web. November 16, 2011. Forbes.com. Henry Goodrich. Forbes.com. November 16, 2011. Web. November 16, 2011. CNN. AmericaÃ¢â¬â¢s fastest-growing small public companies. CNN. November 16, 2011. Web. November 16, 2011.
Thursday, November 21, 2019
Critical Incidents Response - Assignment Example He is responsible for how, when, where and what functions are to be carried out. The civilian tactical operations are more controlled as the snipers, assault and breaching processes are involved. These operations help in determining the position of the subject and keep an eye on his activities via snipers. However, the risks associated are also high as these operations have zero tolerance for mistakes. A single and minor mistake may lead to great losses like a loss of the life of hostage/victim if the subject escapes the shot or attack. Military combats are uncontrolled and uncertain in the circumstances. Both groups have a definite aim to achieve and both have the power to carry out their missions. It becomes quite difficult to realize the hidden potentials of the opponent and hence, the circumstances may vary as the combat progresses. However, in military combats the opponents have definite aims to achieve and there is no interference of greed, new aims and new values after the combat starts. The aim is fixed and the efforts are made to dominate the opponents. Transportation disasters are not always emergencies as people may have knowledge of the disaster beforehand and they are sometimes preventable. For instance, a person living near a railway line knows the potential risks associated with living there and may take necessary steps to prevent himself and his family from those risks by shifting to a safer place or plan to eliminate the risks of being struck by the train; especially for children. 2. Why is it necessary for all facets of the community (individuals, businesses, non-governmental organizations, governmental organizations, etc.) to be involved in disaster management planning and response? There is no set disaster management plan as the emergencies are unexpected and uncertain. The disaster management plan requires government agencies, individuals, non-governmental
Wednesday, November 20, 2019
Housing Bussinees Report - Essay Example Corresponding findings are discussed prior to assessing the CHA Corporate Strategy and Business Plan.Ã Part I talks about the principles and procedures of SWOT Analysis, and how they should have been applied to CHA. Part 2 discusses the purpose of SWOT Analysis as it relates to CHA and why it was difficult for CHA to serve the purposes of a comprehensive and accurate strategy. Part 3 gives an assessment of the weaknesses based on the facts in CHAÃ¢â¬â¢s Corporate Strategy and Business Plan. And Part IV gives the Roles of the Board in order to have a comprehensive SWOT analysis and to successfully utilize results in preparing a more accurate strategy and set of plans. Part I An Explanation of the Method known as SWOT Analysis One of the alternative planning tools of management in different levels involves formulating pertinent questions to be included in a set of questionnaires that will identify the Strengths, Weaknesses, and Opportunities of the business organization, and Threa ts to its future performance. These questionnaires should be for the Stakeholders and/or their official representatives in the Board of Directors. From the response to questionnaires and also based on known information about the company and the industry, the management should be able to identify company strengths and weaknesses as well as the opportunities and threats. This is known as the SWOT Analysis. The main objective of such a tool is to be able to formulate clearly defined, effective strategies that will aim to achieve desired objectives. Strategic planning should therefore follow SWOT Analysis. A diagram below summarizes the interrelated processes. Questionnaires All Board Members representing Stakeholders should answer questions. Performance of SWOT Analysis Strategic Planning Achievement of Desired Objectives, Goals, Purposes, Mission, Vision Through Optimum Performance As can be seen from the diagram, management uses the findings gathered from questionnaires distributed t o the Stakeholders, analyzes them, and develops a logical plan for the company to realize objectives. Contents of the questionnaires should consider all the External Factors that have an impact on the organization and all the Internal Factors (from within the organization). Value of Questionnaires Because the recipient and respondents to questionnaires will be the Stakeholders or the representatives in the Board, their views will be the key resources to be used in determining how the organization will go about achieving objectives and towards which direction. Questionnaires should ask Stakeholders about their awareness of the present status of the organization of which they are a part, an awareness of some history concerning how the company reached its present status, their description of the business (What is it ?) and what should it be, their insights about where the business should be headed, and how they think the business can become the way they want it to be. Sample questions about internal factors that would be related to the recent performance of the organization, are shown in the attached. One book entitled Ã¢â¬Å"Strategic PlanningÃ¢â¬ by the Strategic Planning Society (2006) emphasized that Ã¢â¬Å"There are no magic formulas; each organization will be different. So getting the questions right is crucial to success.Ã¢â¬ The questionnaires should strive to be exhaustive in order to extract adequate and substantial
Monday, November 18, 2019
THE GEARED SYSTEM AND THE GEAR BOX - Coursework Example Theory has it that the larger the gear the less the revolution and the reverse are also true. But can this be explained experimentally? Questions that are of fundamental and the experiment seek answers to are: what is the gear system? What does the gear system entail? And last but not least, what objectives define this experiment? A gear is a common device that is used in transmission of power in engineering. It is an essential component in running of automobiles and machinery (Uicker 67). A geared system includes any system that is toothed and designed for transmission or receiving of motion by means of using successive engaged teeth. The wheel is called the larger wheel where as the pinion is referred to as a smaller gear. A gear is used in engineering situations. It facilitates the rotational speed, the transmission of power (torque) and the direction of output and input shaft. Simpler gear specifications occurs in a gear ratio whereby the ratio of the number of hearing teeth that are the driving gears to the numbers of hearing teeth on the driven gear could be more or less than one. In cases where value of the ratio is more than one, this will lead to a reduced driving rotational speed, and in cases where it is less than one, it could give an increased speed. This experiment seeks to study different gear arrangements and some uses of the gear system. An automotive gear is a gear system that is used in the automotive industry (Uicker 92). This gear gives out a high torque and converts the mechanical energy in a smooth and noiseless way. Turbine gears, on the other hand, are used in minimization of power and noise. Worm gears are gears that are used in driving of the tooth wheel rim that is positioned on the turbines bearing. The objectives set for this experiment was to study different arrangements of gears including worm gearboxes, automobile gear boxes, as well as, turbine reduction gear boxes. Theory. The important specification of the parameters of the g ears includes the number of the gears teeth (z), the circular pitch diameter of the gear (d), and the module (m). The module, m, can, therefore, be given by the following equation; m= d/z, d is the path diameter which could transmit equal motion as that of the actual gear by a pure rolling. The gear ratio or the torque ratio can also be termed as the mechanical advantage. For a basic gear train that has two gears, input gear drives output gear. The teeth of the gear are normally made in a manner that the pitch circles of one gear rolls on another without slipping (Uicker 42). The speed (v) of the contact point of the pitch circles are equal and are given by the following equation; V = r A w A = r B w B, where the input gear (GA) has a radius (r A) and an angular velocity (w A), where as the output gear (GB) has a radius (r B) and angular velocity (w B). The radius of the pitch circle is directly proportional to the number of teeth in gear. This, therefore, implies that the number of teethÃ¢â¬â¢s ratio is equal to the radiiÃ¢â¬â¢s ratio, that is W A/ w B= r B/ r A = N B/N A. Where N A is the input gearÃ¢â¬â¢s total number of teeth where as N B is the output gearÃ¢â¬â¢s number of teeth. Therefore, the gear ratio for a basic gear train is equal to; R= w A/ w B = N B/ N A. This equation implies that if the number of teeth in the input gear is smaller than that of the output gear, then the input gear has to go through a faster rotation in comparison with the output gear. Observations. The different types of the gear teeth were observed in the laboratory and their names and diameter recorded in the table shown below. Name of the gear Diameter of the gear(cm) 1st gear 13.50 2nd gear 7.25 3rd
Saturday, November 16, 2019
Online Patient Appointment Reservation System Online Patient Appointment Reservation System Literature Review Definitions Health informatics or medical informatics is the intersection of information science, computer science, and health care. It deals with the resources, devices, and methods required for optimizing the acquisition, storage, retrieval, and use of information in health and biomedicine. Health informatics tools include not only computers but also clinical guidelines, formal medical terminologies, and information and communication systems . Subdomains of (bio) medical or health care informatics include: clinical informatics, nursing informatics, imaging informatics, consumer health informatics, public health informatics, dental informatics, clinical research informatics, bioinformatics, veterinary informatics, pharmacy informatics and healthcare management informatics. Health Information System The earliest use of computation for medicine was for dental projects in the 1950s at the United States National Bureau of Standards by Robert Ledley. The next step in the mid 1950s were the development of expert systems such as MYCIN and INTERNIST-I. In 1961, a major career change occurred when Morris F. Collen, abruptly went from medical practice into medical computing. The primary goal was to develop a comprehensive health care information system to provide an integrated, continuing patient medical record ; Dr. Sidney Garfield decided In 1965, the National Library of Medicine started to use MEDLINE and MEDLARS. At this time, Neil Pappalardo, Curtis Marble, and Robert Greenes developed MUMPS (Massachusetts General Hospital Utility Multi-Programming System) in Octo Barnetts Laboratory of Computer Science at Massachusetts General Hospital in Boston. In the 1970s and 1980s it was the most commonly used programming language for clinical applications. The MUMPS operating system was used to support MUMPS language specifications. As of 2004, a descendent of this system is being used in the United States Veterans Affairs hospital sys tem. The VA has the largest enterprise-wide health information system that includes an electronic medical record, known as the Veterans Health Information Systems and Technology Architecture or VistA. A graphical user interface known as the Computerized Patient Record System (CPRS) allows health care providers to review and update a patients electronic medical record at any of the VAs over 1,000 health care facilities. In the 1970s a growing number of commercial vendors began to market practice management and electronic medical records systems. Although many products exist only a small number of health practitioners use fully featured electronic health care records systems. Homer R. Warner, one of the Fathers of Medical Informatics, founded the Department of Medical Informatics at the University of Utah in 1968, and the American Medical Informatics Association (AMIA) has an award named after him on application of informatics to medicine . The US HIPAA of 1996, regulating privacy and medical record transmission, created the impetus for large numbers of physicians to move towards using (Electronic Medical Record) EMR software, primarily for the purpose of secure medical billing. The US is making progress towards a standardized health information infrastructure. In 2004 the US Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) formed the Office of the National Coordinator for Health Information Technology (ONCHIT) , headed by David J. Brailer, M.D., Ph.D. The mission of this office is widespread adoption of interoperable electronic health records (EHRs) in the US within 10 years. See quality improvement organizations for more information on federal initiatives in this area. Brailer resigned from the post in April, 2006 . The Certification Commission for Healthcare Information Technology (CCHIT), a private nonprofit group, was funded in 2005 by the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services to develop a set of standards for electronic health records (EHR) and supporting networks, and certify vendors who meet them. In July, 2006 CCHIT released its first list of 22 certified ambulatory EHR products, in two different announcements.  . In Hong Kong a computerized patient record system called the Clinical Management System (CMS) has been developed by the Hospital Authority since 1994. This system has been deployed at all the sites of the Authority (40 hospitals and 120 clinics), and is used by all 30,000 clinical staff on a daily basis, with a daily transaction of up to 2 millions. The comprehensive records of 7 million patients are available on-line in the Electronic Patient Record (ePR), with data integrated from all sites. Since 2004 radiology image viewing has been added to the ePR, with radio graphy images from any HA site being available as part of the ePR. Pekka Loula and Jaakkola Hannu discussed the concept of virtual hospital and telemedicine as a part of daily hospital operations . The concept of the virtual hospital is analyzed by using business, application and technology point of views. In 2005, Byeong-il Lee, Jeong Min Ham, Ki soo Park, Su-Ho Ok, Jong Min Kim and Heoug Kook Choi,  Proposed a system for patient scheduling in a department of nuclear medicine. Regarding Ambulatory Care, N.H. Lovell, K. Balakrishnamoorthy, D. Le and J. Paleologos from Australia developed a user friendly, database-driven system accessible via internet, which replaced the current paper-based system . Some Japanese researchers: Kabushiki Kaish, Kosaku Hideki, Kurihara Tsuyoshi and Suzuye Takehiko  developed an integrated system containing medical information providing system, hospital reception method, medical information database and patient terminal for reception of ho spital. Vipool K. Goradia, M.D. found that the documentation affects patient care, physician efficiency, and ultimately affects the accuracy of coding . Bibliography  http://en.wikipedia.org  Collen MF, HEALTH CARE INFORMATION SYSTEMS A Personal Historical Review, Kaiser Permanente Medical Care Program Oakland, California, ACM 1987.  Hall of Fame of Utah Technology Council, retrieved March 17, 2008  US Office of the National Coordinator for Health Information Technology (ONCHIT)  http://www.linuxmednews.org Linux Medical News  Certification Commission for Healthcare Information Technology (July 18, 2006): CCHIT Announces First Certified Electronic Health Record Products Retrieved July 26, 2006.  Certification Commission for Healthcare Information Technology (July 31, 2006):CCHIT Announces Additional Certified Electronic Health Record Products Retrieved July 31, 2006  Loula Pekka, Jaakkola Hannu, Managing a Virtual Hospital, IEMC 96, IEEE 1996.  Byeong-il Lee, Jeong Min Ham, Ki SOO Park, Su-Ho Ok, Jong Min Kim, Heoug Kook Choi, Development of the Investigation Scheduling System Using Mobile Phone Utilization of the Department of Nuclear Medicine 2005, IEEE.  N.H. Lovell, K. Balakrishnamoorthy, D. Le, J. Paleologos ,Design of an internet-enabled hospital in the home information system for Ambulatory Care, Proceeding of the 23rd Annual EMBS International Conference 2001.  Kabushiki Kaish, Kosaku Hideki, Kurihara Tsuyoshi and Suzuye Takehiko, Medical information providing system, medical information providing method, hospital reception method, medical information database, and patient terminal for reception of hospital.  Vipool K. Goradia, M.D., Electronic Medical Records for the Arthroscopic Surgeon, Arthroscopy: The Journal of Arthroscopic and Related Surgery, Vol 22, No 2 (February), 2006: pp 219-224.
Wednesday, November 13, 2019
Is Death Responsible for Diversity? Some of the hardest questions we struggle to answer in life surround the phenomenon of death. What happens when we die? Is there something beyond death? Is one way to go better than another? Is it possible to escape death? Why do we die, anyway? Why couldn't we just live forever? One explanation for death may come from the story of evolution. To explore this question, let us imagine a hypothetical situation, a world in which nothing dies. (We will imagine also, for now, that organisms would continue to evolve along the same trajectory as they do at present.) Every organism that has ever existed in the past would exist now, along with every organism present and every organism that has yet to exist. Not only would the world contain these organisms, but all potential organisms. "However many ways there may be of being alive, it is certain that there are vastly more ways of being dead or rather, not alive." Ã¢â¬â Richard Dawkins (p 104, Dennett) All the representations of the ways of being 'not alive' would be there, including those that we could not possibly fathom, those that are not necessarily contingent to our present environment. What this signifies, this absence of death, is a lack of natural selection. When nothing can die, everything is selected for, nothing is selected against. No death implies; no tests, no judgments of fit or unfit, no randomness or weeding-out of the genome, no consequence to anything that is potentially detrimental to the species. This hypothetical situation is a look at the unchanging set of all possible options, every combination of DNA that could potentially give rise to life. Every possibility is valid. This version of the world could only exist if we ign... ...t and habitat. The world would be just one big niche, where anything goes, anything is possible. If we do away with natural selection, then we must consequently do away with change, with evolution, with boundaries. "Whenever a species acquires a new capacity, it acquires, so to speak, the key to a different niche or adaptive zone in nature." (p 208, Mayr) The key merited is contingent to the change only because the niche is 'locked' before the change occurs. The boundaries we see are what create the selection pressures that cause organisms to change and are often products of selection pressures themselves. There is a direct relationship between these phenomena. If we have change (evolution) and niches, then death and natural selection are mandatory. Sources Mayr, Ernst. What Evolution Is. New York; Basic Books, 2001. Dennett, Daniel. Darwin's Dangerous Idea.
Monday, November 11, 2019
The article speaks about a recent incident that took place in Brazil, which brought in to light the ethical and moral values of humans. The story had a two sided approach the first one being from the church of Brazil and the second one from the government side. The incident is regarding a step father raping her 9 year old daughter. The girl confessed that she was under a sexual assault from her step father since the age of 6(Yahoo News, 2009). The man was also convicted of sexually abusing the girlÃ¢â¬â¢s 14 year old handicapped sister. Cardinal Giovanni Battista Re, head of the Catholic ChurchÃ¢â¬â¢s Congregation for Bishops said that the abortion carried out by the doctors under the decision of the girlÃ¢â¬â¢s mother was totally wrong and the twins that the girl carried had a right to live. On the other hand President Luiz Ignacio Lula da Silva had other views on the matter. He said that according to the law of Brazil where abortion is illegal and allowed only in case where the health of the child bearing women is endangered the Bishop is totally wrong. The girl had actually been brought to the hospital after several stomach cramps and it was found that she is pregnant and carrying twins. At the age of 9 doctors commented that it was impossible for the girl to bear the children and an abortion was the only viable option left. As the doctor involved in the abortion Rivaldo Albuquerque said that it was important for us to save the life of the girl(Yahoo News,2009). Ethical Issues The article raised several ethical issues regarding human rights and social rights. Firstly the rape case as the man had committed was illegal and should be punished according to the government law of the country. Secondly the issue of child abuse as an ethical issue is also being raised by this incident which is another offense of the law and needs to be punished. Third and the most important issue which has been raised by this incident are of abortion which according to the law of Brazil is illegal. The fourth issue has been raised to contradict the third one which is another face of the same law of abortion which is banned. Abortion is only allowed in case the health of the child bearing women is endangered. The fifth ethical issue is the sexual assault of the other handicapped girl sister of the girl which was actually sexually assaulted. All these ethical issues have come forward due to this incident and need to be taken care of by the Brazilian government. Ethical Theories There are many ethical theories and fields of ethics that are present but only some that are relevant would be applied to this case. We will consider each theory one by one and apply it on the case to deduct a result. Greek Philosophy Socrates emphasized that a person to be ethically correct needs to realize the importance of human life and existence. A person would act rightly and correctly if he or she is self aware and knows the importance of life. Bad deeds or evil deeds are a result of ignorance and if the person knows the consequences of doing wrong he or she would never commit that act (MacKinnon, 2008). According to the theory of Socrates the man who committed the assault was unaware of the consequences of the act to be specific he thought that he would get away with his actions but only the pregnancy of the girl brought up the matter. The case of abortion according to this Greek philosophy is a bit controversial as the importance of human life needs to be considered and in this case whether to save the girl or the twins she was carrying was a decision to be made. Normative Ethics This field of ethics focuses on the rightness and wrongness of actions to judge whether they are ethical or not. The theory says that actions were mainly judged by the intentions of a person as in whether they are right or wrong (Kagan, 1997). According to this theory the man in the case is found guilty of committing a crime and should be punished accordingly as his intention was truly wrong and hence his actions also become wrong. Then the abortion of the child was also morally ethical as the life of the girl was endangered by her pregnancy, hence according to this theory the decision of abortion is also ethically correct. Meta Ethics This approach of ethics is a bit different from other approaches as it looks at the reasons for the truth and decides up on the validity of the reasons as to whether the actions that led to the truth were ethical or non ethical (Miller, 2003). According to this theory the actions of the man were totally unethical as the man had committed an immoral act, which is the truth. The reason for this act was his uncontrollable desires, which were unethical. Abortion was performed because it was the only option through which the girl could be saved. The reason for the abortion was the fact that the doctors had to save the life of the girl and could take no risks, hence the act of abortion was morally ethical. Descriptive Ethics This is a newer field of ethics than normative ethics and focuses on the choices that were available to the person and the one he or she picked according to that his or her actions are judged to be ethical or not. According to this theory the man is still found to be guilty and should be punished as the choices he made were ethically incorrect and on the other hand the abortion done by the doctors was also morally ethical as they had limited choices and needed to save the girl. The doctors agreed on the fact that the girl who was only 9 years old could not carry the burden of pregnancy and hence had to be saved through abortion. Conclusion During this paper we looked up on different theories and fields of ethics. These fields and theories were applied on the case and the deduction of whether this ethical issue were correctly dealt or not was focused. The conclusion is not merely my own decision but the result of applying the ethical theories on the case. These theories when applied clearly highlight the fact that the man should be punished according to the law of Brazil and the decision of abortion made by the mother of the girl and carried out by the doctors was a correct one in the circumstances that were presented. References: Kagan S. (1997) Normative Ethics, Westview Press. MacKinnon B. (2008) Ethics: Theory and Contemporary Issues. Wadsworth Publishing. Miller A. (2003) An Introduction to Contemporary Metaethics, Polity. Yahoo News (March 8, 2009). Vatican defends Brazil excommunication. Retrived on March 10, 2009 from http://au. news. yahoo. com/a/-/world/5375029/vatican-defends-brazil-excommunication/
Friday, November 8, 2019
Perfromance Matrix of Pantene Free Online Research Papers Strengths Good brand Strong profit Loyal customer base Dominant in hair care market Wide distribution Has many product collections The sales of shampoo also help to increase the sales of other Pantene products Weaknesses Use different package around the world Confused consumers by offering too much collections Messy product line Spend a lot of money on the new packaging strategies Opportunities The concern about beauty and health increases People are willing to pay more for Ã¢â¬Å"greenÃ¢â¬ products or natural products Launch the new product line called Ã¢â¬Å"Natural FusionÃ¢â¬ Wining The Australian Beauty Award 2009 Threats Many competitors in the hair care market The fast growth of beauty salons and salonÃ¢â¬â¢s product Susan Anord, president of global business units of PG, left after 28 years serving for the company. STRENGTH Pantene Pro-V is the leading brand in hair care market and is one of the top brands of PG, the world largest consumer-products company. Pantene is also the planetÃ¢â¬â¢s best-selling shampoo with the sales of more than $3 billion dollar annually1. ItÃ¢â¬â¢s really easy to find a Pantene product in any supermarkets, pharmacies, and convenient stores; from city to countryside and from countries to countries. With that wide distribution, more than 1.5 million Pantene products are sold everyday around the world2. The brand has the loyal customer base because people tend to stick to the cosmetic products that they get used to. Beside that, these customers also buy the other products from Pantene, according to a survey, 85% of Pantene shampoo consumers buy Pantene conditioner, 17% buy hair spay and 16% buy other styling products3. With 19 different collections such as Anti-Fizz, Beautiful Length, Smooth, Classic Care etc, Pantene can serve various market segments. WEAKNESS Having too much product lines doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t mean that it is always good and the products lines seem to become messy. Many PanteneÃ¢â¬â¢s consumers said that sometime itÃ¢â¬â¢s confused them from choosing the right collection for their hair. However, Pantene already responded to this problem by offering the quiz, designed by hair expects, on their website www.pantene.com to help consumers find the right one for their needs. The company also tried to make the distinction between different collections from promotion and packaging. Packaging, PG spent more than $100 million to refresh the brand by changing its packaging. Unfortunately, The new packaging strategies fail to deliver any real value innovation to the market, and thus can only be regarded as a fad because bright and glitzy packages will eventually lose their eye-catching quality as more products try to do the same.4 OPPORTUNITY As the standard living increases in many countries, the concern about beauty and health also increases. That is an opportunity for Pantene because people are willing to pay more for the beauty care products or hair care products. According to a study published last month by The Boston Consulting Group, consumers worldwide expressed an interest in buying Ã¢â¬Å"greenÃ¢â¬ products with natural ingredients despite the slumping economy. This trend can be seen as a threat for Pantene because it is still weak compared to some salon-level products like Nexxus and Tresemme of Alberto Culver and Everpure Shampoo of LÃ¢â¬â¢oreal in this market segment. In fact, these products experienced a strong growth recently. DonÃ¢â¬â¢t yield the market share to these products, Pantene launched a new product line called Ã¢â¬Å"Natural FusionÃ¢â¬ to compete with them. An advertisement of Natural Fusion tries to send a message to consumers that they can get a salonÃ¢â¬â¢s result by using Pantene Natural Fusion. Pantene Pro-V also won The Australian Award 2009, this is an opportunity for it to increase sales the following years. THREAT Although Pantene Pro-V is the leading brand in hair care market but it often lose its market share because there are a lot of players in this market. ItÃ¢â¬â¢s a challenge for Pantene to make consumers choose its products over more than 100 kinds of shampoo from various brands on the shelf. Another threat for the company is the rise of beauty salons and salonÃ¢â¬â¢s products. Susan Arnold, the President of Global Business Units for Procter Gamble Co, helped PG from having one billion-brand, Pantene in 1999 to have eight billion-brands today: Pantene, Olay, Head Shoulders, Wella, Mach3, Gillette, Fusion and Braun when she resident of the Companys personal beauty care business ten years ago5. Her leaving after 28 years serving might be a disadvantage for PG. Research Papers on Perfromance Matrix of PanteneMarketing of Lifeboy Soap A Unilever ProductDefinition of Export QuotasRiordan Manufacturing Production PlanAnalysis of Ebay Expanding into AsiaBionic Assembly System: A New Concept of SelfOpen Architechture a white paperGenetic EngineeringIncorporating Risk and Uncertainty Factor in CapitalTwilight of the UAWInfluences of Socio-Economic Status of Married Males
Wednesday, November 6, 2019
Roles and Responsibilities of a Teacher Essays Roles and Responsibilities of a Teacher Essay Roles and Responsibilities of a Teacher Essay This paper will focus upon the roles, responsibilities and boundaries in planning, managing and delivering learning based around the teaching training cycle. This covers the application of learning styles to identify the differences of my learners. The issues of entitlement, equality, diversity and Inclusitivity will be addressed. It will also address the relevant legislation in my area of expertise and the importance of record keeping to maintain quality standards. The outline of scheme of work, lesson planning, methods used and resources available to meet the needs of my learners. Contents Introduction4 Roles, responsibilities and functions of a teacher4 Designing6 Induction6 Effective Lesson Plan8 Scheme of Work8 Key Principle of Learning9 Motivation10 Group Learning12 Learning Styles13 Honey and Mumford Questionnaire13 Domains of Learning14 Facilitating Learning14 Communication14 Inclusion16 Resource Materials/ Teaching Strategies17 Current Legislation17 Managing Behaviour and Disruption18 Functional Skills18 Mentoring and Support19 Micro teaching19 Explain the need for record keeping? 19 Assessing Learning19 Quality Assurance of Assessment decisions20 Formative/Summative Assessment20 Self Evaluation21 Reflective Journals22 Continued professional Development22 Conclusion22 Referencing22 Introduction This assignment will look at the roles, responsibilities and boundaries of a teacher. I will discuss how a teacher has a major effect upon students learning and behaviour. I will discuss the different theories that are related to learning and teaching methods and how they can be used within your teaching practice. I will also pay attention to my students learning styles so that my students are kept motivated and learn effectively. This will enable me to accommodate their needs. I will identify the key aspects of current legislative requirements and codes of practice. I will include how information is gathered about the student and the importance of an Individual Educational Plan. I will examine the different types of assessment methods used and the importance of feedback. It will briefly go onto discuss the different types of records you would keep and why I considered record keeping to be important. I will identify how I implemented functional skills within my subject specialism. I will explain the importance of self reflection and how it enables you to improve your teaching practice. Roles, responsibilities and functions of a teacher The role and responsibilities of a teacher vary as is depends upon where and what you are going to teach. A teachers is not only to teach knowledge and skills to them, but to inspire them, be creative and finding ways to encourage learning. According to Marshall, B (2006). Ã¢â¬Å"Perhaps the most important is passing on what they know about a certain area or subject and ensuring that learners have enough practice and motivation to pass the ourseÃ¢â¬ . There are a number of roles and responsibilities that I need to carry out as this will help assist me to meet the needs of my learners effectively. These might include: ? Following professional values and ethics ? To create a safe learning environment ? Must possess subject knowledge. This shows the student that you are confident ? Give advice but keep it limited ? Must always ta ke a register ? Observe confidentiality ? Show patience ? Must possess classroom management skills ? Must track down students if they fail to attend lesson ? Make sure learning takes place Use safe equipment ? Diagnostic assessment ? Establish needs of the learner During my induction period at NTC I was provided with information about the college policies, current legislation and details about my roles and responsibilities. I have my own mentor that provides continuous help and support throughout my Teacher Training course. I tend to keep a record of what I teach I am going to teach and how my learners are progressing. I thought it was useful to set up a course file which contain all the documentation that is needed to deliver the course. This includes the syllabus, session plan, scheme of work, assignments handouts and activities. All the record of my learners are kept alphabetically so that I can easily access the learners information easily. I tend to keep certain information about my learners such as their application form, interview, Initial assessment, assessment records, action plan, tutorials, and review notes. I always make sure that I have some extra stationery hand as many of my students tend to forget to bring it with them. There are so many characteristics that make up an effective teacher. I always have additional worksheets prepared for my learners to carry out just in case the session finished earlier than expected. Teachers are addressed with many names such as assessor, coach, facilitator, counsellor mentor however it is necessary that I must work within my professional boundaries. It is about knowing where my role stops as a tutor. For instant make call to a learner to find out why they have not turned up, but continuously ringing the learner is not appropriate. I always make sure that I follow organisational requirements and policies. Below are some boundaries of a teacher: Your roles are limited to teaching pastoral care ? Cant undermine other colleague roles ? Not undermining departmental head ? If a criminal offence has been committed you must follow the legal process ? Making sure that you follow college policy e. g theft or assault Teachers are required by the college policy to attend staff meetings, attend standardisation meetings, take part in discipline p rocess and accurately mark a register and student homework. Most teachers tend to follow the training cycle. The training cycle identifies the learnerÃ¢â¬â¢s needs and planning. Designing, facilitating and evaluating learning. However I always ensure that I follow through each point in order for teaching and learning to be effective. Identifying needs and planning Ã¢â¬â This is the stage where you find out the needs of the organisation and the learners. This stage prepares scheme of work and lesson plan taking into consideration the learning styles of each learner, the needs of the organisation, and the syllabus. Designing Ã¢â¬â Preparing a suitable environment, teaching strategies and resources Facilitating Ã¢â¬â Teaching and learning in a suitable manner Assessing Ã¢â¬â Ensuring that learners have met the learning outcomes and obtained knowledge and be able to apply this is practice Evaluation Obtaining feedback from my learners and evaluate so that I can make changes for improvemen Designing When designing the course I took into consideration the target audience so that there is no misconception of what the course entails. It also specified the time, duration and the entry requirements. I made sure that there is no sexual discrimination as the course was aimed at both male and females. There is also no age discrimination as all ages are welcome to join the course. I used a variety of colours, large fonts as this will have a visual impact as more individuals are likely to become aware of the course. The course takes place in the evening as this will give a chance for more learners to join as most individuals will have other commitments during the day such as going to work or looking after children. NTC offer child care facilities in order to attract those who are unable to attend due to not being able to afford child care costs. The course is absolutely free however identification is crucial as this must be bought in during the induction. You can bring in a passport, diving license as well as a bill. Induction When you begin teaching a new group it is very important to know certain points that I need to cover with them. This usually takes place during the induction process. This is a very important process. The induction usually gives an induction to the organisation and the course, I produce a checklist to ensure that I cover everything in the checklist and give learners a copy as this will give me them a framework of what is going to take place. During the induction I introduced myself to the class. I told them a bit about myself in terms of my educational history, where IÃ¢â¬â¢m from and my main aim which was to ensure that every learner within the class is learning effectively. I thought it was a good idea carry out an icebreaker as this will help the learners to get to know one another. This was an excellent team building exercise. I got my learners to introduce themselves in front of the class however this can be intimidating for some learners as they have no met any of the learners however most of my students were happy enough to undertake the activity. If I did encounter some problems I would group my learners into pairs and get them to chat to one another to discuss their hobbies and interests. The students really enjoyed this exercise as they got to know the similarities and the different experiences that learners have. The ice breaker helped me to retain attention, keep motivation high and help the group work together. An icebreaker also encourages the following: ? Encourages team work and inclusion ? Breaks down barriers ? Establish trust ? Create a friendly learning environment ? Builds confidence ? Helps reduce nerves Each of my learners had to fill in an application form as this will help me a brief idea about my learners. The application consisted of a section on their personal detail such as name, address, age, date of birth, place of birth. The next sections considered of previous qualifications and experience and a declaration. My learners undertook Initial/diagnostic assessment as this helped me to assess the level of literacy and numeracy skill the learner had. Some courses/qualifications have entry requirements. it also gives me an indication of aspects of work that they need to improve on. As a teacher I must make sure that I am not disadvantaging my learners by placing them on a course/qualification that they are not able to achieve. The initial assessment gave me information about the learnerÃ¢â¬â¢s current level of ability as this will help me plan learning and assessment. I also conducted a one to one interview which involved asking a number of questions. I asked open ended questions and tried my level best to make my learners comfortable. During this process I got to know why my learner has enrolled on the course. This could be either internal or external. From this It also gave me a general idea on the learners motivation levels. I considered it useful to ask my learners their preferred learning styles as this will have to be taken into considered during the planning process. It gave a chance to identify whether they have any learning difficulties and needed any special adjustments. I thought it was necessary to ask whether they have other commitments and whether this would affect their attendance. Other commitment does tend to have an impact upon whether the learner is able to cope with the workload. It is very important for to know whether my learners have an health issues as my learners may need to need to leave the lesson to take the medicine as this will avoid disruption as I will be aware of why my learner wants to leave the room beforehand. I always ask my learners whether they have previous criminal conviction however I will not discriminate my learners on this basis as everyone must be given a second chance. I gave my learners a tour of the site so that they get familiar way with the building. I also gave them a handout on the facilities that we offer onsite. Such as parking areas, designated smoking areas, catering and toilet points within the organisation. I explained the health and safety procedures which explained the fire procedures, drill practices, and who to report to in an event of emergency. I must make sure that all my students fully understand the health and safety procedures therefore I performed a mini quiz with them which gave me satisfaction that they fully understood the procedures. I explained some details about the course such as the content of the course, learning outcome, how they will be assessed and important dates. We also agreed upon the lunch and break timing as learners need regular breaks to keep them motivated. All learners require ground rules. These are usually set by the organisation. Setting ground rules will help the learner to know their limits. Most learners have expectation from the teacher such as being organised, professional and facilitating learning in the best possible way. I always make sure that I start my sessions on time, write the aims and objectives on the board so that the learners know what is going to be delivered, recapping point and summarising at the end of the session. As a class we produced our ground rules which are the following: ? Mobile phones must be switched of or put on silent in order to avoid distracting the class. Anyone who needs to keep the phone on must inform the teacher as well as informing the group at the beginning of the session so that the call can be taken outside the class ? Must keep up to date with work- If student are not attending class they must make sure that they get the missed information from myself or other peers within the class ? All students must respect one another. Unacceptable behaviour is not acceptable. This can result in Work must be handed in on time. If work is not handed in on time it could lead to failure ? Must attend regularly In order to make sure that these ground rules are not forgotten I encouraged my students to design a poster that can be hung up on the wall so that my learners were aware of what is expected from them. You must allow students to decide upon the ground rules so that they can diffe rentiate between good and bad. It is also very useful to conduct a quiz or multi choice questionnaire that the can stick in their books so that they are constantly reminded of the code of conduct Identifying Learners Needs Scheme of Work A scheme of work is usually prepared i advance. The scheme of work takes into consideration the course requirements and is then broken down into small parts. The scheme of work usually consists of what you are going to cover in each lesson, the teaching activities that are going to be used, the timing for each learning activity in detail as well as the assessment activities. Whilst producing my scheme of work I take into consideration individual needs as well as special learning requirements. I also take into account WWWWWH. The scheme of work consists of the following: Who the lesson is for, the qualifications and the course title ? Location and duration of session ? Aims and objectives ? Activities, resources and assessment Lesson Plan There is a wide variation in regards to a teachers approach to lesson planning. Some teachers have detailed plans whilst others have little information on. Whilst planning a lesson plan there are a number of factors that influence you. A lesson plan consists of a set of aims and objectives in order to achieve the goals that have been set out by the syllabus. I tend to allocate time to the various objectives that have been set out. The aims and objectives covered within the lesson will follow on by assessment/examination. I tend to consider the SMART objectives so that I am able to examine my aims and objectives. I tend to start my lesson with aims and objectives so that the students are aware of what they are expected to know by the end of the lesson. I donÃ¢â¬â¢t expect too much of my learners as it will take time for my learners to assimilate new knowledge. I make sure that I book the venue beforehand and make sure that I have enough chairs and tables in order to accommodate the students. I will also check if the environment is appropriate for any special requirements. The venue can be a boundary and the best use of it must be the tutorÃ¢â¬â¢s responsibility. I tend to keep myself up to date with information relating to my subject area as well as my profession. I refer back to the National Qualification Curriculum Handbook so that I am able to set out activities based upon the learners ability. A boundary is that learners can expect the tutor to know everything. This is not possible. I must make sure that I have information and details on where information is available. Different aspect of diversity and inclusitivity were taken into account throughout the delivery of the lesson. Key Principle of Learning There are a number of theories that explore how people learn. These theories are dependent upon the thoughts and experiences. Individuals have their own way of learning and this can be influenced by their experience in their childhood, school, personal or professional relationships. These theories will assist me to understand my learners effectively. Laird (1985) introduced the sensory theory which suggests that by using the senses (sight, hearing, touching, smelling and taste) will enable you to remember learn effectively. Laird (1985) suggests that if multi senses are stimulated then greater learning is taking place. Laird quotes research that found that the vast majority of knowledge held by adults (75%) is learned through seeing. Hearing is the next most effective (about 13%) and the other senses touch, smell and taste account for 12% of what we know. By stimulating the senses, especially the visual sense, learning can be enhanced. I will make sure that I adopt a variety of teaching strategies and resources to allow my learners to use as many of their senses as possible. Experimental theory was is also a very useful theory based upon the process of how people understand their experiences, and as a result alter their behavior. This theory considers it to be beneficial for continuous reflection as this will gives an opportunity to modify our behavior. Kolb identified four distinct processes which identified methods of learning. Kolb (1984) produced a cycle of learning Experiential learning theory defines learning as the process whereby knowledge is created through the transformation of experience. Knowledge results from the combination of grasping and transforming experience Kolb (1984). This theory emphasizes that without reflection we would continue to repeat our mistakes. [pic] The Two models (Concrete Experience) and (Abstract Conceptualization) are both related forms of grasping experience whilst the other two (Reflective Observation) (RO) and (Active Experimentation) are based upon transforming experience. Concrete Experience Ã¢â¬â This based upon the experiences of teaching. Reflecting upon Ã¢â¬â This is where I consider whether my lesson went well or not. If it didnÃ¢â¬â¢t go so well, what were the causes of it? At this stage I am critically judging myself. Planning Active Experimentation Ã¢â¬â At the final I will identify ways to solve the problem. If I were to conduct the lesson again how would I do it differently? What methods would I adopt and why? I always apply this theory to evaluate my teaching practice. In order for reflection to be effective I am always honest. I try not to blame my students in the process. I always take into consideration my learners learning styles as this will encourage learning. It is very important to identify my weaknesses so that I am able to address the issue and transform it to success. I get my mentor to continuously observe me as this helps me to get a more objective view of my teaching skills. Motivation There are types of motivation one is intrinsic which means the learners wants to learn or extrinsic meaning that there are taking part in learning due to external factors such as wanting to gain a promotion or gain citizenship. The motivation of the learner is mainly dependent upon the teacher. Therefore I must promote a professional relationship which will lead to individual learning and trust. Some learners may be already inspired to learning where other learners must be challenged, inspired and stimulated. There are many factors that affect a learner motivation to learn. In order to motivate my learner I will do the following: 1. Treat them with respect 2. Set clear targets 3. Create a friendly environment 4. Maintained organised and create challenging tasks 5. Make tasks interesting, practical and relevant 6. Use a variety of teaching strategies to reach all learning styles 7. Avoid competition 8. Be aware of their attention span 9. Give constructive feedback [pic] This is a theory of human motivation which has set up a hierarchy of five levels of basic needs which has been produced by Maslow (1954). The physiological needs are the basic survival needs, such as food, water and shelter (Petty 2001). If these needs are met i. e. the learners are well fed, are not thirsty and are neither too warm nor too cold, then the higher needs take their place (Petty 2001). It will be very difficult for a learner to remain motivated if they are hungry or thirsty or too warm. Room temperature is a big problem in some of the temporary buildings in which I teach, these buildings get far too warm in the summer and can be stifling in the winter. One of the first things I do when I arrive in one of these classrooms is to get the learners to open the windows so that the temperature falls and the room becomes less stuffy. Safety needs are concerned with physical and physiological safety (Gary2001). This means that the learners need to be in an environment where they do not feel anxiety or dread, and that the environment is stable (Petty 2001). Basically this means that the teacher should not use threats or punishment or any technique that would belittle or intimidate a learner. The teacher needs to establish the learning environment as one of trust. Social needs are concerned with the need to feel part of a social group (Gray et al 2001). If these needs are not met then the learner can feel lonely, and can feel hostility towards other members of the group. The esteem needs cover self esteem needs (desire for achievement, confidence and to be able to cope by oneself), and respect, where the learner desires recognition, status and dignity (Petty 2001). The self actualisation needs cover personal growth and development, self expression and the need to search for identity (Petty 2001). According to Petty (2001) if the first two needs are met then a teacher can harness MaslowÃ¢â¬â¢s needs by making sure that: All learners feel valued, accepted and included and that a group ethos is developed. There is also opportunity for group workÃ · All students experience success, and get praise and other reinforcement. There are opportunities for learners to gain respect from the teacher and from the other learnersÃ · Routine tasks sometimes make way for choice, creative work and other opportunities for learners to express their individuality. The teacher gives opportunity for the learners to think for themselves and to satisfy their curiosity. Using these techniques will maintain a learnerÃ¢â¬â¢s motivation, as will the use of praise and constructive criticism (Petty 2001). I always made sure that I kept Maslow Hierarchy into consideration as this will help me to create a positive learning environment. Ã¢â¬Å"Independent Learning is that learning in which the learner, in conjunction with relevant others, can make the decisions necessary to meet the learners own learning needsÃ¢â¬ . Kesten (1987). Successful independent learning depends upon internal and external factors. External factors involve the teacher and student relationship and the enabling learning environment. I noticed that independent learning is very beneficial as it motivated the learner as well as improving their management skills in terms of managing their learning. I always make sure that I encourage independent learning as I set out tasks where that require independent work. I deliver the Esol programme. I have about six students at different levels. I deliver a 4 hour lesson in the evening. My students tend to be very tired as the lesson takes place in the evening. I attempt to keep the students stimulated and motivated. It is my responsibility that the learner has a clear understanding of what the topic is, understand the learning objectives and how they will know if they have achieved the learning outcomes. Organisation is very important. It is necessary that to have the materials prepared beforehand, you must have enough handouts, a PowerPoint set up and extensive work set so that students are kept busy at all times. All the students must be learning. Teacher main objective is to facilitate learning. Reece ( 2002). Group Learning A group is a collection of individuals. Each individual will have their own personality. Taking part in group work can have an influence upon the learnerÃ¢â¬â¢s behaviour. Group dynamics can change. For instance when a new learner joins the course late there can be personality clashes. In order to overcome this problem I will make sure that I make the learner feel welcome as well as pairing them with another learner as this encourage socialisation. I reinforce group work all the time and making sure that all my learners are taking part. Sometimes group work can get out of control therefore I must recognize the roles that various learners play as this will enable me to mix the learners into different groups. Groups of people go through stages when they meet. According to Tuckman (1965) group participants go through five stages: 1. Forming Ã¢â¬â This is the stage where learners get to know one another and I will make them aware of the boundaries and code of conduct. 2. Storming Ã¢â¬â This is where conflict arises as disagreements will take place 3. Norming Ã¢â¬â Learners exchange their ideas and group member get along with one another 4. Performing Ã¢â¬â Learners are confident at this stage to express their ideas and are enthusiastic to complete the task given 5. Adjourning Ã¢â¬â At this stage the task is successfully completed. Most learners went to keep in touch It is more than likely that most learnerÃ¢â¬â¢s will complete five stages however there are some learners may not as they will move backwards and forwards in the process. It takes hard work and planning as groups take time to form and work together effectively. Learning Styles Honey and Mumford Questionnaire I also considered it vital to make sure that each learner completes a VAK questionnaire. Every learner has different styles of learning. So therefore as a teacher it was necessary that I referred some learning theories so that I could meet individual needs. Developing from KolbÃ¢â¬â¢s work Honey and Mumford (1982) built a set of interventions which helps students and teachers to realise the diversity that exists in a group of people. They suggested that there are four styles Activist Theorist Pragmatist Reflector Active Processor ? Concrete perceivers absorb information through direct experiences by doing, acting, sensing and feeling. These individual have a preference for work placements, lab work. In other words they enjoy practical work rather than theory. To assist these learners a practical aspect will work more than additional examples. Abstract and reflective processors make sense of experience by immediately using the new information. These learners can be accommodated by making use of review question and the question and answer technique ? Reflective processors usually refer back to an experience. To assist these learners material must be given in advance. It is likely that these learner will perform at a low level withi n a practical task because the notes are not given in advance The VAK questionnaire gives me an idea of the style of learning that my students prefer. To avoid creating barriers for learning to take place I will make sure that I produce a scheme of work with a range of instruction methods to utilize all four learning styles. It is very important to assess learner styles so that they learn quickly and efficiently. Learners need to overcome a number of barriers to learn effectively such as social, physical, and organizational skills and to have a course that is open to many different types of learning styles as possible. An Individual Educational Plan is formed for each student so that we can accommodate the studentÃ¢â¬â¢s needs. IEP is discussed later on in the essay. Domains of Learning Ã¢â¬ËBlooms TaxonomyÃ¢â¬â¢ attempts to classify and form levels of learning. He suggests that learning goes through stages 1. Attention 2. Perception 3. Understanding 4. Short/long term memory 5. Change in behaviour Blooms (1956) states that this can affect thinking and actions. These are called domains: cognitive, affective, and psychomotor. These are organised in a series of levels. One must not try to attempt to address higher level until the levels below are not completed. It provides a way of categorising learning. When planning learning I always make sure that I consider the domains that I want to reach. Facilitating Learning The subject that you will teach will extinguish the style of my delivery. This can formal, informal or a mixture of both. Formal delivery is in a form of a lecture, demonstration, and presentation. Informal teaching is more on the practical aspect as this will involve group work and practical activities. My subject is a mixture of both. I tend to conduct a demonstration before my learners can undertake the tasks or activities set out. I always remain confident when teaching. I try my level best to inspire my learners in order to maintain their interest. I am very passionate about my subject as this does reflect back upon the learners. I always remain professional because if I become too personal my learners will lose respect for me. My learners are attending the course for many different reasons. Some are voluntary and others may be attending for socialising rather than achieving a qualification therefore I must attempt to interest and motivate my learners so that they want to achieve. I do not show favouritism amongst my students as I always treat my students equally. I never lose my temper as this will show the learners that I am frustrated. This shows that the learners are taking control. I never make threats or touch my learners as this is unprofessional behaviour. I try to maintain a positive approach, be fair, friendly and organised. The main motivation is developed by making sure all my learners are learning and participating and making sure that I teach my subject in an interesting and challenging manner. Communication Ã¢â¬Å"Communication is a two way process, where you want to communicate to your students and you want your students to communicate with youÃ¢â¬ . Question and answer is a good way to develop this interactional style of communication. Reece (2003). In order to ensure that good communication takes place it is necessary to create an effective learning environment. To achieve this I need to make sure that there is trust between the tutor, learners and the institute. It is also method to recall information as well as and it assesses whether learning is taking place. Communication can take form in the m anner of expression such as body language, gestures, and voice. First impressions are considered to be very important. The learners tend to make a judgement during the first meeting as well as the teachers about their learners. However these judgements change over a period of time. Non verbal plays an important role in communication. I always make sure that I show good eye contact, always smile, I use the correct use of language, tone of voice, eye movement and other action that will result in a friendly Some gestures you may not realise such as hand movements. It is useful to have a video recording of my lesson so that I can identify my weaknesses. I make sure that whilst I write on the board or the flip chart I must not talk to my learners as this can be distracting for the learners to do two things at one time. It may also result in the learners not being able to hear me speak and miss out vital information. Ã¢â¬Å"Fault communication cause most problemsÃ¢â¬ . Ã¢â¬Å"Effective communication occurs only if the receiver understands the exact information or idea that the sender intended to transmitÃ¢â¬ . Therefore I always make sure that I use the three PÃ¢â¬â¢s (Pitch-Pause-Pace). To ensure that the three PÃ¢â¬â¢s are effective. I must make sure that I speak clearly as this is the means to transmit clear information. I believe that in order to be an effective teacher it is necessary to communicate effectively. Without successful communication there is no learning taking place. I ensure that I adjust of my communication according to the standards of the class. . I always provide positive stroke as this give encourages learning. I always maintain the trust between my students, myself and the institutions as well as showing unconditional regards to my learners. Roger (1989). If my students produce good standards of work I consider it important to reward them. The behaviourist theory which was produced by B. F. Skinner identified in his research that rewards are positive reinforces that encourage learning to take place. I try to avoid punishment as this is a negative reinforce. I make sure that I appropriately make use of the three EÃ¢â¬â¢s (Engage. Explain, and Entertain). I use a variety of open ended questions as this will result in getting a lot of information out of my students. This is a very good process to get my student involved in discussions. Having a sense of humour is very beneficial as this will hel me get the attention of my learners. The three CÃ¢â¬â¢s are also relevant which are Clear, Concise and Content. Communication must be clear and must be relevant to the course content. I must not complicate my speed by using jargons and ancronyms. I always remain focused and do not loose the point that I am trying to get across. I always ask regular questions to check if the learner is listening. I use language that promotes equality and diversity however I make it relevant to my subject and must not discriminate against my learners. According to SENDA 2001 it is unlawful to treat a disabled person lesson favourably due to their disability. It is my responsibilities to make sure that reasonable adjustment are made so that the learner is able to reach their full potential. I donÃ¢â¬â¢t expect all my learners to remember everything first time as they donÃ¢â¬â¢t know what I know. The interchange of information needs to be effective. Ã¢â¬Å"In a teaching situation the teacher should transmit information for the whole period but there is no guarantee that the information will be received by the students. The teacher needs to be able to assess problems of understanding embarrassment and confusion in students. Ã¢â¬ Walkin (2002). Inclusion Britain consists of a number of people from different races, a wide variety of cultural backgrounds and different aspirations to learning. All institution are legally responsible to promote inclusion. Inclusion is about an individualÃ¢â¬â¢s right to have access to education, to be valued for who they are and are provided with the necessary support. There are three strategies to develop an inclusive curriculum. First is to set suitable learning challenges, being able to respond to diverse needs of student and overcoming barriers to learning and assessment. Inclusion of my learners start of by me gaining knowledge about the student by looking at their application forms and Individual Learning Plan which will give me an insight of the students learning abilities, educational achievement, past experiences, and learning needs can be identified. I will make sure that I adopt an inclusive teaching approach so that I can deliver equal opportunities and diversity policies. I will match provision to my students need and incorporate regular reflection, review and refinement of strategies will actively involve my student in the learning process despite their abilities. During my teaching practice and during the planning of my lessons I felt that it was necessary that I took the following into consideration: Entitlement Ã¢â¬â All learners are entitled to an equal right in education so that they are able to reach their full potential, therefore, it is my duty to meet the learners required needs Equality- It is the framework that enables opportunity, access, participation and contribution Differentiation No matter what age, sex and race the learner is, all learners must be treated equally Inclusitivity- Ensure that all learners are learning. Some learners may feel intimidated, excluded, irritated, threatened or discriminated by the teachers words and actions or by the work or activities that they are expected to do, therefore, it is the teachers duty to ensure that all the SEN learners are included and are participating within the classroom I came across a doctor called Dr Bailey. He was called into a class to observe as some teachers were unable to handle their class. Dr Bailey sat at the back of the class, recorded what was going on within the classroom and then watched the video. This was a useful method to identify the problems within the classroom. his research had a major impact upon my teaching as effective learning can only take place if you possess classroom management skills. If any of my learners did have behaviour issues I would be able to refer back to this particular research to handle those learners with behaviour difficulties. Resource Materials/ Teaching Strategies Whilst selecting the resources I took into consideration the learning styles of my learners. . Ã¢â¬Å"To make use of resources use the right aid, at the right time, in the right place, in the right mannerÃ¢â¬ . Walkin (2002). For instance you may have a student with vision problems therefore it is not appropriate to use visual aid to help students to learn about a topic. The resources should be selected in order to suit your learners. As a teacher you have a duty not to offend any learners within your classroom. I thought it would be a good idea to evaluate the resources that I used so that I can modify or change them for future references. The resources I selected promoted Equality and diversity as the learners gained skills and knowledge. Resources play an important role to motivate the learners. I was unsure about the teaching strategies that I could use within my classroom. I had to examine barriers that may affect their learning styles. These include reading and writing abilities, lack of confidence in speaking and lack of concentration. The strategies that I will adopt will ensure that my learners are enjoying and understanding the content of what is being taught. I regularly use the question and answer method on a regular basis as this is a useful method that will enable students to interact, improve their speech and boost their confidence. I always praise my students whether they are right or wrong so that they feel confident in answering questions. Reece and Walker (2000, p135) state Ã¢â¬Å" your task is to adopt as many strategies as you can and to choose the most appropriate one for each group you teachÃ¢â¬ . I usually adopt strategies that my students feel comfortable with and ensuring that all my learners are able to participate in the activities that I have set out so that everyone is learning Current Legislation As a professional teacher I must keep up to date with current legislation as this partly forms my roles and responsibilities. It enables me to clarify such requirements for my learners when necessary. Years ago offensive behaviour would have been discouraged by schools, colleges and Universities however policies are now prohibited by law. These include discriminatory behaviour, bullying on the grounds of individuals sexual orientation or beliefs. The rules and regulations are very clear at NTC. NTC are very dedicated to ensuring policies, practices and procedures that give staff the opportunity to work to their full potential. The college has many strategies in removing all types of discrimination. The college is very clear about the standard of behaviour that is expected from its teachers and learners. Teachers are role models to their students therefore they must promote positive behaviour within the classroom. Any stereotypical assumptions are discouraged. I always deliver my lesson without being prejudice and bias. NTC recruitment is very fair as they select individuals solely based upon their ability to do the job. In order to reach a fair decision relevant qualification and experiences are taken into consideration. It is vital that all staff undertake a CRB check as this is compulsory. All new employees must be able to provide at least two references. The Health and Safety at Work Act 1974 sets a framework for students as well as staff. It is necessary that the teacher is aware of the health and safety issues and requirements so that he/she can keep themselves as well as the students safe. I will make sure that my learners are in safe environment and are using equipment appropriately. The following legislation promotes inclusiveness: Sex Discrimination Act 1975- It is illegal to treat a woman or a man less favourably on the basis of their sexuality or marital status Disability and Discrimination Act 2005 Reasonable adjustments must be made to allow learners to fully participate in the learning process The Race Relation Act (1976) Ã¢â¬â It is illegal to discriminate anyone on the basis of their colour, race, nationality and origin The Equality Act 2006 Aims to destroy discrimination and inequality, it is formed to protect human rights so that everyone has a fair right within society The Human Rights Act 1998 Ã¢â¬â Everyone must be treated equally It is my responsibility to make sure that I follow these laws in order to avoid breaching the law as well as making sure that my students are safe. Managing Behaviour and Disruption In order to get through a session without disruption would be extraordinary however this is very rare. Disruption can take place for a number of reasons. Disruption can take place in a number of forms such as learners arriving late as this will result in me starting the lesson from the beginning so that the learner can catch up, an enthusiastic learner who wants to learn more or a student wanting to be excused from the lesson to go to the toilet. Whatever disruption it may be I must handle it professionally so that it can have a minimised effect upon my teaching and learning. Disruption is usually occurred due to learners not following the ground rules such as mobile phones ringing in class or the learners decide to eat and drink in middle of the class. If this does happen in class I politely ask them to shop and remind them of their ground rules and explain that this act has affected their peers learning. Disruption can also be caused as a result of being bored, learners not understanding what I am teaching or that my work is not challenging enough. I usually provide alternative activities in order to get my learners involved. If disruption still occurs I will have a one to one chat with them. Functional Skills Functional skills are part of a national strategy for improving adult literacy, language and numeracy skills which is called skills for life. They cover reading, writing, speaking and listening skills, English for speakers of another language (EAL) and numeracy skills. There are three levels; the entry level is divided into three sub-levels; entry 1. 2,3 which describes in detail the small steps required by the learner to make progress. The entry level enables learners to gain confidence, knowledge and understanding if their ability is low or accurate s In the planning of my sessions I need to look at the standards for Literacy and Numeracy and incorporate some in my session plans. The learners will complete an ILP at the beginning of the course allowing for information to be provided on learning abilities and needs. This is used to plan for all individual learning needs in the sessions and differentiate work if necessary. The learners will complete a basic skill assessment for literacy and numeracy on the induct ion. This provides accurate specific information on individual ability, needs, support required and the opportunity for the learners to look at gaining level / in literacy and Numeracy. Functional skills are common to all our lives. They help make sense of daily life. Functional skills provide students with the essential knowledgde, skills and understanding that will enable them to operate confidently, effectively and independently in life and at work. Individuals of whatever age who posses these skills will be able to participate and progress in education, training and employment as well as develop and secure the broader range of aptitudes, attitudes and behaviours that will enable them to make a positive contribution to communities in which they live and work. Functional Skills Update, QCA (December 2005). Mentoring and Support It is very crucial that I support my learners in the possible way so that learning and development takes place. During the Initial Assessment I identified particular individual needs therefore I provided effective support strategies and give learners access to appropriate sources for guidance. I enhance an environment that enhances access and participation in their learning programme. I make sure that I provide my students with the necessary resource, specialist equipment to help my learners to learn effectively. I recognize the diversity of my learners needs and ways to motivate them. I always apply the concept of inclusive learning and encourage learner autonomy. I always ask my mentor for help as they provide me with help and guidance. Micro teaching As part of my Teacher Training course it is vital for me to undertake some micro teaching. It was a very useful experience as this assisted me to develop my communication skills, develop my practical skills, the faults were observed and the observes give constructive feedback. This helped met to improve my teaching skills. Explain the need for record keeping? Register- It is my responsibility to keep a register for every lesson so that you are aware of who is attending class and those who are not, As a teacher it is your duty to make sure that you aware of why certain individuals are not attending class. This information is very vital for the college, the teacher or it may be a requirement for funding to show that a learner attended a certain amount of hours. Individual Learning Plan Ã¢â¬â This is a living document that remains throughout the learnerÃ¢â¬â¢s course which is contributed by the learner, myself and relevant people from the work place. The purpose of the ILP is to gather accurate relevant information on the learnerÃ¢â¬â¢s ability, experiences, trainings, special requirements and learning needs, to provide information on achievements, progress and training throughout the course. The learner has the opportunity to reflect on progress, achievement and this provides information on how the learners feeling and if the support provided needs to be tailored for the learner. Assessment Records Ã¢â¬â This is so that I am aware of my students achievement as well as their failure. This will help me to reflect upon my teaching practice and adjust my teaching strategies in order for the student to succeed. I always respect my learners as this a key to creating a good relationship. Assessing Learning Assessment is a way to find out whether learning has taken place. Assessment is very important. Ã¢â¬ËIf you have no assessment, you have no learningÃ¢â¬â¢ (Wallace 2005) It shows me whether the learner has gained the skills and knowledge in order to successfully achieve the learning outcome of the course. I adopt a number of methods to asses my learners. There are a variety of assessment methods available. Some assessment methods were very goods and some were not suitable for my learners. I had to decide upon the assessment methods that were suitable for my learners. It found it very useful to evaluate the assessment methods I used it to establish if my learners were learning or not, if not why not? If I had too many pass rates within the class, then maybe my assessment methods were far too easy or it could be that my expectation of the class level of learning is at a lower level than the actual class level of learning. It is necessary that assessment must be fair. I will make sure that I always refer to VACSR NASTA (2007). It is necessary that the assessment is VALID Ã¢â¬â Does it assess what is in the syllabus or course requirements? AUTHENTIC Ã¢â¬â Is the evidence genuinely the work of the learner? CURRENT Ã¢â¬â Can the learnerÃ¢â¬â¢s knowledge and skills be demonstrated? SUFFICIENT Ã¢â¬â Is there enough to cover all the requirements of the syllabus? RELIABLE Ã¢â¬â Are the assessment decisions currently being made consistent with those made during past assessment opportunities or by other assessors? Quality Assurance of Assessment decisions To make sure that the marks I have given to my students are fair, Quality Assurance is adopted. All the colleagues meet together where they bring examples of assessment that are marked so that they can compare the grades with one another. Qualified and experience members are present in the same subject area. They provide judgements and advice. This is known as internal verification. If there is a problem with the learners work it gives them a chance to correct it. Quality improvement is not only about getting better results from current activities but should be an ongoing process to continually improve the services that are provided by the college, The process for improving quality within my organisation is to: Set and achieve targets ? Keep records to support quality standards ? Regular observation to review my performance ? Produce an action plan to address weaknesses ? Regular feedback from student ? Produce a folder as evidence to CPD ? Ensure that students are progressing ? Raising student achievement Formative/Summative Assessment Assessment can be either formative which is an ongoing process or a summative assessment which takes place at the end of the course in a form of an exam. Most courses work towards a qualification therefore have learning outcome that needs to be met by each of the learners. This can be assessed through assignments or questions to assess my learnerÃ¢â¬â¢s knowledge. Theses assessments are usually designed by the awarding body. Formative assessment improves learning by keeping a track of the progress made by the student by regularly monitoring and review. Summative assessment can be either a pass or a fail. However it can be referred so the learners has a second chance on a similar assessment. The summative assessment is a very beneficial tool as it allows me to know whether my teaching has been effective as this will result in the learners pass rates. If the students pass they receive a certificate as a result. Whilst selecting the assessment methods I always take into consideration the learning outcomes of the course. When planning my assessment I always take into consideration th who, what , when, where, why and how (WWWWWH). This is a way for me to make sure that my questions are very clear and test the learning outcomes. I always refer to the Criterion referenced assessment which measures the achievement against a standard document which contains the criteria of the course as well. I use both formative and summative assessment. Informal and formal assessments are both very useful for making valid and useful assessments of learners knowledge and performance. Many teachers tend to combine the two together. For example by evaluating one skill using informal assessment such as observing group work, and another using formal tool, for example a discrete item grammar tests. I will make sure that I keep a log and record of each individual learner from initial to summative assessment so that I am aware of the studentÃ¢â¬â¢s achievement Self Evaluation Self evaluation involves thinking about and learning from your own practice and from the practices of others so as to gain new perspective and ideally improve judgement. By using self evaluation you can increase the probability of taking informed actions where situations are complex, unique and certain. Self evaluation is very crucial for your own professional development. According to (Carr and Kmmis 1986) good teachers reflect on what they do to gain an understanding of their strengths and weaknesses, to identify areas in which they can improve. As a teacher trainee I consider it necessary to conduct a self evaluation after each lesson so that I can identify how well my lesson went, what was good, what I could have done differently, and what needed improving. I use various methods to obtain the information that I need to develop further. After every teaching lesson I have got into a habit of conducting a reflective journal about my teaching experience. This helps me to keep a log of the areas I need to improve on. It is very useful to ask a member of staff to observe the lesson and provide you with feedback. This is very useful as this will enable me to adjust my teaching techniques. I will also provide a feedback form to my students as this is very useful as it will enable me to adjust my teaching techniques so that the learner are able to learn more effectively. The feedback sheet will ask my students Ã¢â¬Ë what they found useful about my lessonÃ¢â¬â¢ and Ã¢â¬Ëhow the lesson could improveÃ¢â¬â¢. Feedback is very useful as the feedback is given instantly and it is also relevant and reliable. Feedback is very important to me as well as to the students. It is necessary to provide feedback to my learners either verbally or written. It is vital that feedback is always provided on homework as well as assessment. Hattie (1999) noted: Ã¢â¬Å"The most powerful single moderator that enhances achievement is feedback. It should aim to clarify how and why the student understands and misunderstand and the direction the student must take to improveÃ¢â¬ . Feedback can be negative or positive. However if the feedback about the learners work is negative the teacher must provide negative and positive feedback together so that the learner does not feel intimidated. You must use mild phrases such as Ã¢â¬ËhoweverÃ¢â¬â¢. It is necessary to provide a reason why positive and negative feedback is given. The teacher must have the ability to convert the negative feedback to a target that the student must meet so that they are encouraged to improve their learning. Baldwin (1989) recommends useful tips on giving feedback 1) Feedback must be immediate 2) It should be direct so that there is no confusion as to what is required 3) There should be no Ã¢â¬Ësugar coatingÃ¢â¬â¢ of feedback 4) Behaviour should be addressed and not the learner 5) Feedback should provide the solution to the negative point 6) Feedback must be balanced and avoid discrimination ) It must avoid too much negativity When students and teacher receive feedback it must be taken positively. You must not get offended by the advice given. Feedback is a useful method and it must be applied so that the learner is able to know their strengths and weaknesses. Reflective Journals I tend to keep a reflective journal to record certain events within my teaching practice such as how I responded to different situations and learners, how patient I was and how my skills need to be developed. It is important for me to identify my mistakes so that I can overcome these by identifying strategies. This process helped me to identify whether I needed further training to improve my knowledge and skills. I found it useful to refer to the training cycle as this will enable me to answer all the questions that will enable me to improve myself. Identifying needs and planning Ã¢â¬â Was my lesson plan taking into consideration my learners need? Did I provide clear aims and objectives? Did I follow my lesson plan? If I were to change the lesson plan how would I do it differently? Designing Ã¢â¬â Did I come early to prepare the room environment as well as setting up the equipment in advance? Were the materials such as resources, teaching strategies effective? How would I do it differently? Facilitating Ã¢â¬â Did I take into account the different learning styles? Was I communicating Effectively? Did I recap the session? Did I use jargon? Were my learners motivated? Did I promote Inclusitivity? Was I dresses appropriately? Assessing Ã¢â¬â Were all my learners assessed? Have all my learners fully understood? If not, why not? How would I do it differently? Evaluating Ã¢â¬â Were there are particular situation that arisen? How did I deal with it? Did I obtain feedback? Continued professional Development I will make sure that I pursue continued professional development throughout my career to make sure that I keep up to date with current skills, knowledge and policies as this contributes to the characteristics that make up an effective teacher. I will produce an individual learning plan and keep a professional development record to satisfy external bodies. Conclusion This assignment was very useful as I am fully aware of my roles, responsibilities and boundaries. Inclusion is very important. I will make sure that all my students are participating and are learning effectively. I have become aware of the different types of assessment methods and how assessment plays an important role for the students as well as the teacher. Records of students will be kept so that I am aware of my studentÃ¢â¬â¢s needs and progress. I will make sure that I communicate effectively taking into consideration verbal and non verbal communication. I strongly believe that effective communication comes with practice. A variety of strategies and resources will be used so that my students are kept motivated. Self evaluation is very important and will enable me to improve my teaching practice. Feedback will be given on an ongoing process and students work will be marked instantly with feedback. Referencing Armitage A (1999) Teaching and Training in Post-Compulsory Education OUP Curzon L B (1997) Teaching in Further Education: An Outline of Principles and Practice 5th Edn Cassell Kolb, D. A. (1999) The Kolb learning style inventory, version 3, Boston: Hay Group. Minton D (2000) Teaching Skills in Further and Adult Education Rev Edn Thomson Petty G (1998) Teaching Today: A Practical Guide Nelson Thornes Petty G (2001) Teaching Today. Nelson Thornes Petty, G. 2004) Teaching Today 3rd Edition. Nelson Thornes Reece, I, Walker, S. , (1994) Teaching, Training and Learning. Sunderland. Business Education Publishers Limited Walkin S, Reece I. 5th Edition. Teacher Training and Learning Business Education Publishers Limited Websites www. smartcreen. co. uk www. cityandguilds. com/qtls David Kolbs learning styles model and experiential learning theory Available at [WWW] businessball s. com/kolblearningstyles. htm Viewed 2009 Curriculum Certification Authority. Assessment Strategies Available at [WWW] www. qca. gov. uk Viewed 2009